Perineal Model with 4th-Degree Tear for Obstetrics Resident Training


The purpose of this study was to create an anatomical model of the female perineum with
a 4th-degree tear for obstetrics resident education. The initial model was digitally sculpted in
Zbrush software and 3D printed. Digital negatives were then created of each component to serve
as molds. These molds were 3D printed and used to cast the model components in silicone. The
silicone components were held together with a 3D printed and foam base.

The final model consisted of the following anatomical structures: the skin and surface
anatomy of the female genitalia, the vaginal and rectal mucosa, the transverse perineal muscle
(superficial component), and the external anal sphincter. Experts were consulted on the design of
the model and modifications were made based on their opinions. The model underwent several
design iterations before it was tested by the residents in an educational setting.

The research study was designed in consultation with my committee members, and a
statistician and REB approval was obtained from the University of Toronto. I recruited sixteen
residents to participate in my study. These residents performed a 4th-degree perineal tear repair
using my model and provided feedback by answering survey questions.

Capstone Team: 

Shirley Hutchinson


Capstone Advisory Committee:

Dr. Jon (Yosef) Barrett
Josh Qua Hiansen
Dr. Richard Pittini


TRP Faculty Lead:

Adriana Ieraci